Measuring Flow Experiences in Daily Life: An Examination of the Items Used to Measure Challenge and Skill Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Researchers have identified potential problems with the traditional measurement of challenge and skill on the self-report forms used in the experience sampling method (ESM) (Ellis, Voelkl, & Morris, 1994; Moneta & Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different approaches to measurement of challenge and skill. One approach was based on the traditional measurement of challenge and skill in relation to the activity in which participants were engaged and the second approach was based on measurement of challenge and skill in relation to participants' focus of attention. Thirty six undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) measurement of challenge and skill in relation to activity or (b) measurement of challenge and skill in relation to what they were thinking about. In the first condition (i.e., challenge and skill in relation to activity), the contribution of the challenge-skill relationship was found to be significant in predicting level of affect and self-affirmation. In the second condition, (i.e., challenge and skill in relation to attention), the contribution of the challenge-skill relationship was not found to be significant in predicting level of affect or self-affirmation. Copyright 1998 National Recreation and Park Association.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Leisure Research

author list (cited authors)

  • Voelkl, J. E., & Ellis, G. D.

citation count

  • 29

complete list of authors

  • Voelkl, Judith E||Ellis, Gary D

publication date

  • September 1998