The Measurement of Perceived Freedom in Leisure Academic Article uri icon


  • Describes the development, reliability, and validity of five scales designed to measure perceived freedom in leisure. The scales are based on attribution theory and the concepts of flow, arousal theory, and playfulness. Scales appear to have acceptable levels of both alpha and test-retest reliability. Initial indications of validity based on interscale correlations, factor structure, and correlation with other variables are also acceptable. The value of the scales for assessment and basic research on the state of mind view of leisure are discussed.-Authors

published proceedings

  • Journal of Leisure Research

author list (cited authors)

  • Ellis, G., & Witt, P. A.

citation count

  • 44

complete list of authors

  • Ellis, Gary||Witt, Peter A

publication date

  • April 1984