In vitro- and in vivo-generated defective RNAs of satellite panicum mosaic virus define cis-acting RNA elements required for replication and movement. Academic Article uri icon


  • Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper virus, panicum mosaic virus (PMV), to provide trans-acting proteins for replication and movement. The 824-nucleotide (nt) genome of SPMV possesses an open reading frame encoding a 17.5-kDa capsid protein (CP), which is shown to be dispensable for SPMV replication. To localize cis-acting RNA elements required for replication and movement, a comprehensive set of SPMV cDNA deletion mutants was generated. The results showed that the 263-nt 3' untranslated region (UTR) plus 73 nt upstream of the CP stop codon and the first 16 nt in the 5' UTR are required for SPMV RNA amplification and/or systemic spread. A region from nt 17 to 67 within the 5' UTR may have an accessory role in RNA accumulation, and a fragment bracketing nt 68 to 104 appears to be involved in the systemic movement of SPMV RNA in a host-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, defective RNAs (D-RNAs) accumulated de novo in millet plants coinfected with PMV and either of two SPMV mutants: SPMV-91, which is incapable of expressing the 17.5-kDa CP, and SPMV-GUG, which expresses low levels of the 17.5-kDa CP. The D-RNA derived from SPMV-91 was isolated from infected plants and used as a template to generate a cDNA clone. RNA transcripts derived from this 399-nt cDNA replicated and moved in millet plants coinoculated with PMV. The characterization of this D-RNA provided a biological confirmation that the critical RNA domains identified by the reverse genetic strategy are essential for SPMV replication and movement. The results additionally suggest that a potential "trigger" for spontaneous D-RNA accumulation may be associated with the absence or reduced accumulation of the 17.5-kDa SPMV CP. This represents the first report of a D-RNA associated with a satellite virus.

published proceedings

  • J Virol

author list (cited authors)

  • Qiu, W., & Scholthof, K. B.

citation count

  • 26

complete list of authors

  • Qiu, W||Scholthof, KB

publication date

  • March 2000