Condensation ofBosons and the Laser Phase Transition Analogy
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A simple analytic expression for the ground state of a dilute gas of N ideal bosons in a 3D harmonic potential at temperature T is derived from the steady state solutions of nonequilibrium equations of motion. The N particle constraint plays the important role of introducing the essential nonlinearity yielding a Ginzburg-Landau free energy. The present analysis has much in common with the quantum theory of the laser, and with the laser phase transition analogy. 1999 The American Physical Society.
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