The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion Academic Article uri icon


  • The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a mathematical model that estimates cattle requirements and nutrient supply based on animal, environmental, and feed compositional information in diverse production situations. Predicted animal requirements account for different physiological states (lactation, pregnancy, and growth), body reserves and environmental effects. The CNCPS uses feed carbohydrate and protein degradation and passage rates to predict extent of ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, post-ruminal absorption, and total supply of metabolizable energy and protein to the animal. The CNCPS has been used successfully on beef and dairy cattle farms to evaluate and formulate rations. In an evaluation with individually fed growing cattle, the CNCPS accounted for 89% of the variation in ADG with a 7.4% underprediction bias. When the CNCPS was evaluated with data from individual dairy cows where the appropriate inputs were measured and changes in energy reserves were accounted for, the CNCPS accounted for 90% of the variation in actual milk production of individual cows with a 1.3% bias. The model accounted for 76% of the variation in individual cow milk production with an 8% underprediction bias when energy was first limiting in high producing cows, and accounted for 84% of the variation with a 1.1% overprediction bias when protein was first limiting. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Fox, D. G., Tedeschi, L. O., Tylutki, T. P., Russell, J. B., Van Amburgh, M. E., Chase, L. E., Pell, A. N., & Overton, T. R.

citation count

  • 421

complete list of authors

  • Fox, DG||Tedeschi, LO||Tylutki, TP||Russell, JB||Van Amburgh, ME||Chase, LE||Pell, AN||Overton, TR

publication date

  • February 2004