Unacylated ghrelin rapidly modulates lipogenic and insulin signaling pathway gene expression in metabolically active tissues of GHSR deleted mice.
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BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that unacylated ghrelin (UAG) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis; however, the mechanism for this activity is not fully understood since a UAG receptor has not been discovered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess potential mechanisms of UAG action in vivo, we examined rapid effects of UAG on genome-wide expression patterns in fat, muscle and liver of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-ablated mice using microarrays. Expression data were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Regulation of subsets of these genes was verified by quantitative PCR in an independent experiment. UAG acutely regulated clusters of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in all three tissues, consistent with enhancement of insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fat, muscle and liver are central to the control of lipid and glucose homeostasis. UAG rapidly modulates the expression of metabolically important genes in these tissues in GHSR-deleted mice indicating a direct, GHSR-independent, action of UAG to improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile.
author list (cited authors)
Delhanty, P., Sun, Y., Visser, J. A., van Kerkwijk, A., Huisman, M., van Ijcken, W., ... van der Lely, A.
complete list of authors
Delhanty, Patric JD||Sun, Yuxiang||Visser, Jenny A||van Kerkwijk, Anke||Huisman, Martin||van Ijcken, Wilfred FJ||Swagemakers, Sigrid||Smith, Roy G||Themmen, Axel PN||van der Lely, Aart-Jan
editor list (cited editors)