Effect of ghrelin on glucose regulation in mice
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Improvement of glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery appears to be from the composite effect of the alterations in multiple circulating gut hormone concentrations. However, their individual effect on glucose metabolism during different conditions is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine whether ghrelin has an impact on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and insulin sensitivity (using a mice model). Rate of appearance of glucose, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis were measured in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor knockout (Ghsr(-/-)) mice in the postabsorptive state. The physiological nature of the fasting condition was ascertained by a short-term fast commenced immediately at the end of the dark cycle. Concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured, and insulin resistance and hepatic insulin sensitivity were calculated. Glucose concentrations were not different among the groups during the food-deprived period. However, plasma insulin concentrations were lower in the ghrelin(-/-) and Ghsr(-/-) than WT mice. The rates of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and indexes of insulin sensitivity were higher in the ghrelin(-/-) and Ghsr(-/-) than WT mice during the postabsorptive state. Insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporter 2 gene expressions in hepatic tissues of the ghrelin(-/-) and Ghsr(-/-) were higher compared with that in WT mice. This study demonstrates that gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis are increased and insulin sensitivity is improved by the ablation of the ghrelin or growth hormone secretagogue receptor in mice.
author list (cited authors)
Chacko, S. K., Haymond, M. W., Sun, Y., Marini, J. C., Sauer, P., Ma, X., & Sunehag, A. L.