A potential role for fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in the stimulation of hepatic glucokinase gene expression.
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The effects of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P(2)) on hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) gene expression were investigated in streptozotocin-treated mice, which exhibited undetectable levels of insulin. Hepatic F-2,6-P(2) levels were manipulated by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Streptozotocin treatment alone or with infusion of control adenovirus leads to a dramatic decrease in hepatic F-2,6-P(2) content compared with normal nondiabetic mice. This is accompanied by a 14-fold decrease in GK and a 3-fold increase in G-6-Pase protein levels, consistent with a diabetic phenotype. Streptozotocin-treated mice that were infused with adenovirus-overexpressing an engineered 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase with high kinase activity and little bisphosphatase activity showed high levels of hepatic F-2,6-P(2). Surprisingly, these mice had a 13-fold increase in GK protein and a 2-fold decrease in G-6-Pase protein compared with diabetic controls. The restoration of GK is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of Akt upon increasing hepatic F-2,6-P(2) content. Moreover, the changes in levels of F-2,6-P(2) and Akt phosphorylation revealed a pattern similar to that of streptozotocin mice treated with insulin, indicating that increasing hepatic content of F-2,6-P(2) mimics the action of insulin. Because G-6-Pase gene expression was down-regulated only after the restoration of euglycemia, the effect of F-2,6-P(2) was indirect. Also, the lowering of blood glucose by high F-2,6-P(2) was associated with an increase in hepatic nuclear factor 1-alpha protein, a transcription factor involved in G-6-Pase gene expression. In conclusion, F-2,6-P(2) can stimulate hepatic GK gene expression in an insulin-independent manner and can secondarily affect G-6-Pase gene expression by lowering the level of plasma glucose.
author list (cited authors)
Wu, C., Okar, D. A., Stoeckman, A. K., Peng, L., Herrera, A. H., Herrera, J. E., Towle, H. C., & Lange, A. J.
complete list of authors
Wu, Chaodong||Okar, David A||Stoeckman, Angela K||Peng, Li-Jen||Herrera, Amy H||Herrera, Julio E||Towle, Howard C||Lange, Alex J