Descriptive sensory and instrumental texture profile analysis of woody breast in marinated chicken.
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The broiler industry is currently experiencing a muscle anomaly referred to as "woody breast," and the effect of different cooking methods on the marination properties of severe woody breast (SWB) has not yet been reported. This study compared the texture attributes of marinated (injected) normal (NOR) and SWB using a convection oven and a flat-top grill. The objectives were 1) to develop and validate a descriptive texture attribute panel with 6 trained panelists using a 16-point scale and 2) to evaluate the instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) using a texture analyzer. Sixty-four NOR and SWB were obtained from a commercial facility. Fillet color (L*, a*, b*) and pH were measured before marination. In each of 2 trials, the breast muscles were injected in bulk with 15% brine (0.48 STPP, 0.55% NaCl, final concentration), and marinade retention was determined after 20minutes. The meat was vacuum packaged, stored at -20C (7 d sensory; 29 d TPA) and then thawed (4C, 24h). Fillets were cooked to 73C on a flat-top grill (176C) or in an oven (176C), and cook loss % was determined. Panelist samples (22cm) and TPA samples (42cm) were cut into 3 pieces. Color and pH were higher for SWB than NOR fillets (P < 0.05). Marinade retention was 83.21% for NOR meat and 59.23% for SWB meat. The flat-top grill method resulted in higher cook loss than oven (P < 0.05). SWB had higher cook loss when compared to NOR (P < 0.05). Sensory texture descriptors springiness, hardness, denseness, cohesiveness, fracturability, fibrousness, crunchiness, and chewiness were higher for SWB than NOR fillets (P < 0.05). TPA attributes also showed higher values for SWB compared to NOR (P < 0.05). No differences in texture were found between the grill and oven for sensory and TPA attributes. In summary, marinated SWB has significant texture differences when compared to NOR, regardless of cooking method.