Genotyping-by-sequencing application on diploid rose and a resulting high-density SNP-based consensus map.
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Roses, which have been cultivated for at least 5000 years, are one of the most important ornamental crops in the world. Because of the interspecific nature and high heterozygosity in commercial roses, the genetic resources available for rose are limited. To effectively identify markers associated with QTL controlling important traits, such as disease resistance, abundant markers along the genome and careful phenotyping are required. Utilizing genotyping by sequencing technology and the strawberry genome (Fragaria vesca v2.0.a1) as a reference, we generated thousands of informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. These SNPs along with known bridge simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers allowed us to create the first high-density integrated consensus map for diploid roses. Individual maps were first created for populations J06-20-14-3"Little Chief" (J14-3LC), J06-20-14-3"Vineyard Song" (J14-3VS) and "Old Blush""Red Fairy" (OBRF) and these maps were linked with 824 SNPs and 13 SSR bridge markers. The anchor SSR markers were used to determine the numbering of the rose linkage groups. The diploid consensus map has seven linkage groups (LGs), a total length of 892.2cM, and an average distance of 0.25cM between 3527 markers. By combining three individual populations, the marker density and the reliability of the marker order in the consensus map was improved over a single population map. Extensive synteny between the strawberry and diploid rose genomes was observed. This consensus map will serve as the tool for the discovery of marker-trait associations in rose breeding using pedigree-based analysis. The high level of conservation observed between the strawberry and rose genomes will help further comparative studies within the Rosaceae family and may aid in the identification of candidate genes within QTL regions.