Regulation of Glucose-6-phosphatase Gene Expression by Protein Kinase Bα and the Forkhead Transcription Factor FKHR EVIDENCE FOR INSULIN RESPONSE UNIT-DEPENDENT AND -INDEPENDENT EFFECTS OF INSULIN ON PROMOTER ACTIVITY*
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Glucose-6-phosphatase plays an important role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and insulin suppresses glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression. Recent studies indicate that protein kinase B and Forkhead proteins contribute to insulin-regulated gene expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of protein kinase B and Forkhead proteins in mediating effects of insulin on glucose-6-phosphatase promoter activity. Transient transfection studies with reporter gene constructs demonstrate that insulin suppresses both basal and dexamethasone/cAMP-induced activity of the glucose-6-phosphatase promoter in H4IIE hepatoma cells. Both effects are partially mimicked by coexpression of protein kinase Balpha. Coexpression of the Forkhead transcription factor FKHR stimulates the glucose-6-phosphatase promoter activity via interaction with an insulin response unit (IRU), and this activation is suppressed by protein kinase B. Coexpression of a mutated form of FKHR that cannot be phosphorylated by protein kinase B abolishes the regulation of the glucose-6-phosphatase promoter by protein kinase B and disrupts the ability of insulin to regulate the glucose-6-phosphatase promoter via the IRU. Mutation of the insulin response unit of the glucose-6-phosphatase promoter also prevents the regulation of promoter activity by FKHR and protein kinase B but only partially impairs the ability of insulin to suppress both basal and dexamethasone/cAMP-stimulated promoter function. Taken together, these results indicate that signaling by protein kinase B to Forkhead proteins can account for the ability of insulin to regulate glucose-6-phosphatase promoter activity via the IRU and that other mechanisms that are independent of the IRU, protein kinase B, and Forkhead proteins also are important in mediating effects of in insulin on glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression.
author list (cited authors)
Schmoll, D., Walker, K. S., Alessi, D. R., Grempler, R., Burchell, A., Guo, S., Walther, R., & Unterman, T. G.
complete list of authors
Schmoll, D||Walker, KS||Alessi, DR||Grempler, R||Burchell, A||Guo, S||Walther, R||Unterman, TG