Citrus Bioactive Limonoid Extraction using Environment-friendly Hydrotropy Conference Paper uri icon


  • Citrus consumption has been shown to promote human health due to presence of several bioactive compounds. In the process of understanding the health benefits of citrus, we need to isolate and characterize these compounds. Limonoids are one of such prominent, but lesser-known phytonutrients that have been shown to prevent cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, and colon. With the growing interest in the health-promoting properties of citrus limonoids, the demand for these bioactives has significantly increased. It has been critical to explore environment-friendly extraction methods rather than using hazardous organic solvents. A water-based hydrotropic extraction of limonoid aglycones from sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seeds was developed. Two hydrotropes, sodium salicylate (Na-Sal) and sodium cumene sulfonate (Na-CuS), were studied for extraction efficiency using the Box Behnken experiment design method. The extraction efficiency of prominent aglycone limonin was observed depending on hydrotrope concentration, extraction temperature, and percentage of raw material loading. Response Surface Analysis (RSA) of data predicted the optimum conditions for maximum yield. Recovery of aglycones from filtered extract is also easily achieved by mere dilution using water at pH 3 or 7 or by partitioning the extract with dichloromethane. At optimum conditions, limonin yield of 0.46 mg/g seeds in the case of Na-Sal extraction and 0.65 mg/g seeds in the case of Na-CuS extraction was achieved. The results demonstrated that the hydrotropic extraction process of limonoid aglycones has practical commercial importance. This project is based upon work supported by the USDA–CSREES IFAFS #2001 52102 02294 and USDA–CSREES #2005-34402-14401 “Designing Foods for Health” through the Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center.

author list (cited authors)

  • Dandekar, D., Jayaprakasha, G. K., & Patil, B.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Dandekar, Deepak||Jayaprakasha, GK||Patil, Bhimanagouda

publication date

  • July 2006