Fractionation of monomeric and polymeric anthocyainins from Concord grape (Vitis labrusca L.) juice by membrane ultrafiltration.
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Concord grape juice with 20% polymeric and 60% monomeric anthocyanin (Acy) forms was ultrafiltrated using polyvinylidene fluoride flat sheet membranes ranging from 10 to 1000 K molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) to obtain different permeate and retentate fractions. Permeate flux, membrane resistance, Acy rejection, fouling, Acy content and composition, color properties, and antioxidant activity (AOX) were characterized. Results showed that permeate flux declined with lower MWCO, while membrane resistance increased and related exponentially with fouling. Anthocyanin membrane rejection differed for polymeric and monomeric Acy forms. Polymeric Acy increased (36-66%) and monomeric Acy decreased (12-20%) in retentate fractions with membrane pore size of <100K MWCO, while polymeric Acy decreased (11-28%) and monomeric Acy increased (5-7%) in permeate fractions. Fraction properties showed that AOX related linearly with the total phenolic content, while lightness and chroma color properties related linearly to the monomeric Acy content. These results indicate that ultrafiltration can be used to tailor monomeric and polymeric Acy fractions with potential effects in color and bioactive properties.