Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS) and their inhibitors (TIMPS) during mouse peri-implantation: role of nitric oxide.
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Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to play pivotal roles in embryo implantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NO on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), as well as the mechanism of NO during mouse implantation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME was administered with or without sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NO donor, into one uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy, and the contralateral uterine horn served as the control. We collected the uteri on days 5, 6, and 7 of pregnancy and examined the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1, -2, -3, as well as the activities of MMP-2 and -9 by using in situ hybridization and gelatin zymography, respectively. The results showed that, compared with the control, the expression of MMP-2 and -9 mRNAs was decreased in L-NAME-treated uteri during peri-implantation. Treatment of mice with L-NAME had slight effect on the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA on day 5 of pregnancy, and no effect on TIMP-2 mRNA expression during peri-implantation. However, the expression of TIMP-3 mRNA was increased. The gelatin zymography results indicated that the activity of MMP-9 was decreased during peri-implantation, but the activity of MMP-2 did not change significantly in these time points examined. The L-NAME-mediated effect on MMPs and TIMPs were significantly reversed when SNP was co-administered with L-NAME. These data suggest that inhibition of NO production regulates the gene expression of MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-3, together with the activity of MMP-9 during peri-implantation, which may have serious consequence on embryo implantation.
author list (cited authors)
Zhang, X., Wang, H. M., Lin, H. Y., Liu, G. Y., Li, Q. L., & Zhu, C.
complete list of authors
Zhang, X||Wang, HM||Lin, HY||Liu, GY||Li, QL||Zhu, C