Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen clones varying in O3 sensitivity: can CO2 ameliorate the harmful effects of O3?
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To determine whether elevated CO2 reduces or exacerbates the detrimental effects of O3 on aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). aspen clones 216 and 271 (O3 tolerant), and 259 (O3 sensitive) were exposed to ambient levels of CO2 and O3 or elevated levels of CO2, O3, or CO2 + O3 in the FACTS II (Aspen FACE) experiment, and physiological and molecular responses were measured and compared. Clone 259. the most O3-sensitive clone, showed the greatest amount of visible foliar symptoms as well as significant decreases in chlorophyll, carotenoid, starch, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) concentrations and transcription levels for the Rubisco small subunit. Generally, the constitutive (basic) transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) and the average antioxidant activities were lower for the ozone sensitive clone 259 as compared to the more tolerant 216 and 271 clones. A significant decrease in chlorophyll a, b and total (a + b) concentrations in CO2, O3, and CO2 + O3 plants was observed for all clones. Carotenoid concentrations were also significantly lower in all clones; however. CHS transcript levels were not significantly affected, suggesting a possible degradation of carotenoid pigments in O3-stressed plants. Antioxidant activities and PAL and 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC)-oxidase transcript levels showed a general increase in all O3 treated clones, while remaining low in CO2 and CO2 + O3 plants (although not all differences were significant). Our results suggest that the ascorbate-glutathione and phenylpropanoid pathways were activated under ozone stress and suppressed during exposure to elevated CO2. Although CO2 + O2 treatment resulted in a slight reduction of O3-induced leaf injury, it did not appear to ameliorate all of the harmful affects of O3 and, in fact. may have contributed to an increase in chloroplast damage in all three aspen clones.
author list (cited authors)
Wustman, B. A., Oksanen, E., Karnosky, D. F., Noormets, A., Isebrands, J. G., Pregitzer, K. S., ... Podila, G. K.