Influence of Constant Temperatures on Life History Parameters of the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii, Infesting Cotton
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Laboratory clip-cage studies were conducted to quantify the temperature-dependent development, survivorship, and reproduction and to generate life history characteristics and population growth parameters of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on phenologically standardized greenhouse-grown cottons at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. The developmental thresholds were estimated to be 6.3, 6.7, 5.9, 5.9, and 6.3 degrees C for first to fourth instars and for total nymphal development, respectively. The maximum rate of development were estimated to occur at 32.2, 30.8, 30.4, 30.0, and 30.2 degrees C for first to fourth instars and for total nymphal development, respectively. Increased temperature resulted in more rapid decline in survivorship, which was particularly sharp at 35 degrees C, dropping from 94 to 17% in 5 d. Number of days elapsed until first deposition of progeny increased progressively and sharply at temperatures 10 (26 d) to 15 (15 d) to 20 degrees C (8 d) and stabilized at 5 d for 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. Average lifetime fecundity of females rose from a low of 9.76 progeny at 10 degrees C to a peak of 58.9 progeny at 30 degrees C and declined sharply to 17.3 at 35 degrees C. Finite rate of population growth was highest at 25 degrees C and lowest at 10 degrees C. Although stage-specific developmental maxima occurred between 30 and 32 degrees C, a nonlinear regression model estimated 28.6 degrees C to be the optimum temperature for overall cotton aphid development, reproduction, and population increase.
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