Behavioral response of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) to cotton with and without expression of the CrylAc delta-endotoxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Academic Article uri icon


  • Behavioral responses of larvae and adults of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera to cotton with (GK-12) and without (SI-3) expression of the CrylAc -endotoxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner were observed during 2001 and 2002. Our results showed that 8.3% individuals fed with flowers and bolls of GK-12 could develop from neonate to pupa; however, pupal weight decreased by 48.6% and duration of development was delayed by 7.6 days compared with those fed with flowers-bolls of SI-3. Deterrence index (DI) of larvae decreased in later instars, which indicated that the Bt toxin decreased with age. Feeding frequency of 4th-instar larvae on GK-12 leaves decreased by 38.8%, but movement frequency increased by 37.1%. Larvae moved at least one plant away by the age of 10 days in both pure and mixed plantings of SI-3 and GK-12 in the field. Adults preferred to lay eggs on SI-3. The total number of eggs deposited on SI-3 plants in 3 days were about 232 and 95% greater than that on GK-12 plants at bud-flower stage and flower-boll stage, respectively. Based on the behavior of larva and adults in response to the transgenic cotton, the potential effect of refuge strategy in resistance management of H. armigera is discussed.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Men, X. Y., Ge, F., Yardim, E., & Parajulee, M. N.

citation count

  • 26

complete list of authors

  • Men, XY||Ge, F||Yardim, E||Parajulee, MN

publication date

  • January 2005