A century of paraphyly: A molecular phylogeny of katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) supports multiple origins of leaf-like wings
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The phylogenetic relationships of Tettigoniidae (katydids and bush-crickets) were inferred using molecular sequence data. Six genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, Cytochrome Oxidase II, Histone 3, Tubulin Alpha I, and Wingless) were sequenced for 135 ingroup taxa representing 16 of the 19 extant katydid subfamilies. Five subfamilies (Tettigoniinae, Pseudophyllinae, Mecopodinae, Meconematinae, and Listroscelidinae) were found to be paraphyletic under various tree reconstruction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Bayesisan Inference and Maximum Parsimony). Seven subfamilies - Conocephalinae, Hetrodinae, Hexacentrinae, Saginae, Phaneropterinae, Phyllophorinae, and Lipotactinae - were each recovered as well-supported monophyletic groups. We mapped the small and exposed thoracic auditory spiracle (a defining character of the subfamily Pseudophyllinae) and found it to be homoplasious. We also found the leaf-like wings of katydids have been derived independently in at least six lineages.
author list (cited authors)
Mugleston, J. D., Song, H., & Whiting, M. F.