Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) outbreak in blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna) in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil Academic Article uri icon


  • ABSTRACT: Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a lethal and important disease of captive psittacine birds, and affects a wide range of species, including endangered ones, and lacks an effective treatment. This report describes PDD in three blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna) in southern Brazil. All three macaws originated from the same aviary and presented similar clinical signs including anorexia, apathy, emaciation and prostration. At necropsy, one of the macaws presented an enlarged proventriculus. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates was observed in the ganglia and nerves of the esophagus, crop, proventriculus, ventriculus, heart, adrenal glands, and adrenal medulla of all three cases. Two macaws had meningoencephalomyelitis and one had myocarditis. Immunohistochemistry identified PaBV antigen in the brain, proventricular, ventricular ganglia, and epicardial ganglia, and cardiomyocytes of all three macaws.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • de Araujo, J. L., de Cristo, T. G., de Morais, R. M., da Costa, L. S., Biezus, G., Muller, T. R., Rech, R. R., & Casagrande, R. A.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • de Araujo, Jeann Leal||de Cristo, Thierry Grima||de Morais, Raissa Moreira||da Costa, Leonardo Silva||Biezus, Giovana||Muller, Thiago Rinaldi||Rech, Raquel Rubia||Casagrande, Renata Assis

publication date

  • November 2017