Conjugated ladder-type oligomers are a class of important functional organic materials. They possess intriguing properties stemming from their fully fused aromatic backbones. The construction of the ladder-type backbone relies on a ladderization step, which may be accomplished through either kinetically or thermodynamically controlled annulation reactions. The attributes of these reactions are discussed, with relevant recent examples. The development of these reactions is key to continued advances and innovation in the field of organic conjugated materials.
2 Kinetic Annulations
3 Thermodynamic Annulations
4 Future Outlooks and Conclusion