Differences between seasonal and mean annual energy balance model calculations of climate and climate sensitivity.
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A simple Budyko-Sellers mean annual energy balance climate model with diffusive transport (North, 1975b) is extended to include a seasonal cycle. The seasonal model is used to reveal how the annual mean climate and its sensitivity to changes in incident radiation differ from the predictions obtained with the corresponding mean annual model. Although the zonal temperatures obtained with the seasonal model are 1-3o higher than those obtained with the mean annual model, the changes in the global average annual mean surface temperatures calculated with the two models are practically identical for a 1% decrease in solar constant. - from Authors
author list (cited authors)
North, G. R., & Coakley, J. A.