Rapid estimation of avidin and streptavidin by fluorescence quenching or fluorescence polarization
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A new biotin-carboxyfluorescein conjugate has been presented in the accompanying study (G. Kada et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 000 (1999) 000-000) which contains ethylene diamine as a 4-atom spacer. This so-called biotin-4-fluorescein showed exceptionally fast and tight binding to avidin and streptavidin, and binding was accompanied by strong quenching. In the present study the specific quenching of 'biotin-4-fluorescein' was utilized to measure (strept)avidin concentrations (0.2-2 nM) by the extent of fluorescence quenching at 8 nM ligand concentration. Adsorption of (strept)avidin to the assay tubes was suppressed by inclusion of bovine serum albumin (0.1 mg/ml). Virtually the same specific response to avidin and streptavidin was also observed with commercial 'fluorescein-biotin', except that >10 h incubation times were required. The slow association of 'fluorescein-biotin' was attributed to the anti-cooperative binding which is due to the much longer spacer as compared to 'biotin-4-fluorescein'. The third ligand tested in this study was 'biotin-4-FITC' which was analogous to 'biotin-4-fluorescein' except that carboxyfluorescein was replaced by the fluorescein isothiocyanate residue. Surprisingly, this probe was much less quenched by avidin but this was compensated by an exceptionally high fluorescence polarization in the avidin-bound state. In conclusion, the new ligand 'biotin-4-fluorescein' appeared to be the most general and convenient probe: quenching was most pronounced and linearly dependent on (strept)avidin concentrations, the dose response for streptavidin was almost the same as for avidin, and the association kinetics were fast enough to reach equilibrium within 30 min incubation time.
author list (cited authors)
Kada, G., Kaiser, K., Falk, H., & Gruber, H. J.