Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the “immortal” jellyfish with a reversible life-cycle
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Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71.5%), reversed transcriptional orientation for the large rRNA subunit gene, and paucity of CGN codons. An incomplete complementary duplicate of the cox1 gene was found at the 5' end of the T. dohrnii mt chromosome, as were variable repeat regions flanking the chromosome. We identified species-specific variations (nad5, nad6, cob, and cox1 genes) and putative selective constraints (atp8, nad1, nad2, and nad5 genes) in the mt genes of T. dohrnii, and predicted alterations in tertiary structures of respiratory chain proteins (NADH4, NADH5, and COX1 proteins) of T. dohrnii. Based on comparative analyses of available hydrozoan mt genomes, we also determined the taxonomic relationships of T. dohrnii, recovering Filifera IV as a paraphyletic taxon, and assessed intraspecific diversity of various Hydrozoa species.
author list (cited authors)
Lisenkova, A. A., Grigorenko, A. P., Tyazhelova, T. V., Andreeva, T. V., Gusev, F. E., Manakhov, A. D., ... Rogaev, E. I.