Case Study: Mass Transport Mechanism in Kyunggi Bay around Han River Mouth, Korea
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The horizontal, two-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model was modified to include the salt and heat-balance equations and wetting-and-drying scheme. It was applied to Kyunggi Bay (Korea) to reproduce mean conditions for one typical year. Extensive data were compiled and analyzed to evaluate input parameters representative of long-term mean conditions for the tide, salinity, and temperature. The model, forced by four major tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, and O1), daily freshwater discharges, and daily net surface heat exchange, produced a reasonable reproduction of observed tidal elevations, tidal currents, and long-term mean monthly distributions of salinity and temperature. The calculated residual circulation pattern is consistent with previously observed, though limited, data collected in the vicinity of Kanghwa Island and Ichon Harbor. The model was used to study the following mass transport mechanisms: tidal nonlinearity, barotropic pressure gradient associated with freshwater discharge, and baroclinic pressure gradient due to density gradient. The residual circulation pattern, and its variations under different freshwater flow regimes, was examined.