Chiral Recognition in π Complexes of Alkenes, Aldehydes, and Ketones with Transition Metal Lewis Acids; Development of a General Model for Enantioface Binding Selectivities
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Prochiral alkenes, aldehydes, and ketones constitute the most frequently used starting materials for enantioselective organic syntheses. Protocols often involve chiral binding agents or Lewis acids that can give two diastereomeric adducts, the ratios of which are measures of chiral recognition. With π adducts, the diastereomers differ in the enantioface of the C=C or O=C group bound to the Lewis acid. This review provides the first comprehensive analysis of such equilibria and related binding phenomena with chiral transition metal Lewis acids. An extensive body of data from the authors' laboratory for complexes of the pyramidal rhenium fragment [(η5-C5H5)Re(NO)(PPh3)] + (I) affords particular insight. Literature data for other complexes are also summarized. A general model for chiral recognition based upon the relative steric properties of four quadrants is presented. This enables binding selectivities to be individually and rationally optimized for different classes of ligands. Electronic effects are also identified and correlated with specific structural properties. Relationships between binding equilibria, reactivity, and product configurations are discussed.
author list (cited authors)
Gladysz, J. A., & Boone, B. J.