Antiviral Immunity and Virus-Mediated Antagonism in Disease Vector Mosquitoes
- Additional Document Info
- View All
More than 100 pathogens, spanning multiple virus families, broadly termed 'arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses)' have been associated with human and/or animal diseases. These viruses persist in nature through transmission cycles that involve alternating replication in susceptible vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Collectively, these viruses are among the greatest burdens to global health, due to their widespread prevalence, and the severe morbidity and mortality they cause in human and animal hosts. Specific examples of mosquito-borne pathogens include Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Interactions between arboviruses and the immune pathways of vertebrate hosts have been extensively reviewed. In this review we focus on the antiviral immune pathways present in mosquitoes. We also discuss mechanisms by which mosquito-borne viruses may antagonize antiviral pathways in disease vectors. Finally, we elaborate on the possibility that mosquito-borne viruses may be engaged in an evolutionary arms race with their invertebrate vector hosts, and the possible implications of this for understanding the transmission of mosquito-borne viruses.
author list (cited authors)
Samuel, G. H., Adelman, Z. N., & Myles, K. M.