Optimal temperature for development of poly(methylmethacrylate) Academic Article uri icon


  • The authors have investigated a range of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) development temperatures as low as -70 C and characterized their effect on the resolution of PMMA as an electron resist. The results show that cooling, in addition to reducing the sensitivity of the commonly used positive-tone mode of PMMA, also increases the sensitivity of its less commonly used negative-tone mode. They have shown that the resolution-enhancing properties of cold development peak at approximately -15 C as a result of these competing sensitivity changes. At lower temperatures, the high doses required to expose the resist produce significant cross-linking of the polymer, altering its solubility properties and sharply degrading the contrast. If the correct development temperature is used, however, sub- 10 nm features are readily achievable in PMMA-based scanning electron-beam lithography. 2007 American Vacuum Society.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Cord, B., Lutkenhaus, J., & Berggren, K. K.

citation count

  • 73

complete list of authors

  • Cord, Bryan||Lutkenhaus, Jodie||Berggren, Karl K

publication date

  • December 2007