An integrated approach to the optimisation of water usage and discharge in pulp and paper plants Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper is aimed at developing a systematic methodology for the cost-effective reduction of water usage and discharge in pulp and paper plants. As the industry moves towards increased system closure, the build-up of Non-Process Elements (NPEs) leads to serious consequences on the process equipment. In response, this paper achieves the following: a mathematical model to track water and primary NPEs throughout the pulping process rigorous targeting for water usage and discharge a systematic framework for water reduction using mass integration strategies including no/low cost techniques as well as capital-based techniques an optimisation model for the optimisation of allocation, recycle and separation of aqueous streams. A case study for water management in a kraft pulping process has been solved to highlight the usefulness of the devsied approach. Copyright 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Lovelady, E. M., El-Halwagi, M., & Krishnagopalan, G. A.

citation count

  • 44

complete list of authors

  • Lovelady, Eva M||El-Halwagi, Mahmoud||Krishnagopalan, Gopal A

publication date

  • January 2007