Identification and dissection of Ca(2+)-binding sites in the extracellular domain of Ca(2+)-sensing receptor.
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Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) represent a class of receptors that respond to changes in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) and activate multiple signaling pathways. A major barrier to advancing our understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in regulating CaSRs is the lack of adequate information about their Ca(2+)-binding locations, which is largely hindered by the lack of a solved three-dimensional structure and rapid off rates due to low Ca(2+)-binding affinities. In this paper, we have reported the identification of three potential Ca(2+)-binding sites in a modeled CaSR structure using computational algorithms based on the geometric description and surface electrostatic potentials. Mutation of the predicted ligand residues in the full-length CaSR caused abnormal responses to [Ca(2+)](o), similar to those observed with naturally occurring activating or inactivating mutations of the CaR, supporting the essential role of these predicted Ca(2+)-binding sites in the sensing capability of the CaSR. In addition, to probe the intrinsic Ca(2+)-binding properties of the predicted sequences, we engineered two predicted continuous Ca(2+)-binding sequences individually into a scaffold protein provided by a non-Ca(2+)-binding protein, CD2. We report herein the estimation of the metal-binding affinities of these predicted sites in the CaSR by monitoring aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence energy transfer. Removing the predicted Ca(2+)-binding ligands resulted in the loss of or significantly weakened cation binding. The potential Ca(2+)-binding residues were shown to be involved in Ca(2+)/Ln(3+) binding by high resolution NMR and site-directed mutagenesis, further validating our prediction of Ca(2+)-binding sites within the extracellular domain of the CaSR.
author list (cited authors)
Huang, Y., Zhou, Y., Yang, W., Butters, R., Lee, H., Li, S., ... Yang, J. J.
complete list of authors
Huang, Yun||Zhou, Yubin||Yang, Wei||Butters, Robert||Lee, Hsiau-Wei||Li, Shunyi||Castiblanco, Adriana||Brown, Edward M||Yang, Jenny J