A Facile and Regioselective Synthesis of Trans-Heterofunctionalized Porphyrazine Derivatives Academic Article uri icon


  • New methodology was developed for the selective synthesis of regiochemically defined porphyrazines of the form M[pz(A2;B2)] (shown in Chart 1) where A and B represent peripheral functionalization attached to the β-positions of the pyrroles. Specifically, phthalonitriles or derivatives thereof with sterically bulky groups in positions 3 and 6, in particular 4,7- bis(isopropyloxy)-1,3-diiminoisoindoline (3) act as a 'trans director' when macrocyclized with heteroatom-appended maleonitriles under Linstead conditions, the result being preferential formation of the trans- M[pz(A2;B2)] pigment where A = SR, NMe2, OR, as well as R (shown in Chart 2). Linstead crossover macrocyclization of 3 with 4, 11, 15, and 18 gave pigments 10, 14, 17, and 19, respectively. These pigments were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, microanalysis, and 17 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

altmetric score

  • 6

author list (cited authors)

  • Forsyth, T. P., Williams, D., Montalban, A. G., Stern, C. L., Barrett, A., & Hoffman, B. M.

citation count

  • 70

publication date

  • January 1998