N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a Drinking Water Contaminant: A Review
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N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a member of a family of extremely potent carcinogens, the N-nitrosamines. Until recently, concerns about NDMA mainly focused on the presence of NDMA in food, consumer products, and polluted air. However, current concern focuses on NDMA as a drinking water contaminant resulting from reactions occurring during chlorination or via direct industrial contamination. Because of the relatively high concentrations of NDMA formed during wastewater chlorination, the intentional and unintentional reuse of municipal wastewater is a particularly important area of concern. Although ultraviolet (UV) treatment can effectively remove NDMA, there is considerable interest in the development of less expensive alternative treatment technologies. These alternative technologies include approaches for removing organic nitrogen-containing NDMA precursors prior to chlorination and the use of sunlight photolysis, and in situ bioremediation to remove NDMA and its precursors.
author list (cited authors)
Mitch, W. A., Sharp, J. O., Trussell, R. R., Valentine, R. L., Alvarez-Cohen, L., & Sedlak, D. L.