Strain and Bond Length Dynamics upon Growth and Transfer of Graphene by NEXAFS Spectroscopy from First-Principles and Experiment.
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As the quest toward novel materials proceeds, improved characterization technologies are needed. In particular, the atomic thickness in graphene and other 2D materials renders some conventional technologies obsolete. Characterization technologies at wafer level are needed with enough sensitivity to detect strain in order to inform fabrication. In this work, NEXAFS spectroscopy was combined with simulations to predict lattice parameters of graphene grown on copper and further transferred to a variety of substrates. The strains associated with the predicted lattice parameters are in agreement with experimental findings. The approach presented here holds promise to effectively measure strain in graphene and other 2D systems at wafer levels to inform manufacturing environments.