Developmental Programming, a Pathway to Disease.
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Accumulating evidence suggests that insults occurring during the perinatal period alter the developmental trajectory of the fetus/offspring leading to long-term detrimental outcomes that often culminate in adult pathologies. These perinatal insults include maternal/fetal disease states, nutritional deficits/excess, stress, lifestyle choices, exposure to environmental chemicals, and medical interventions. In addition to reviewing the various insults that contribute to developmental programming and the benefits of animal models in addressing underlying mechanisms, this review focuses on the commonalities in disease outcomes stemming from various insults, the convergence of mechanistic pathways via which various insults can lead to common outcomes, and identifies the knowledge gaps in the field and future directions.
author list (cited authors)
Padmanabhan, V., Cardoso, R. C., & Puttabyatappa, M.
complete list of authors
Padmanabhan, Vasantha||Cardoso, Rodolfo C||Puttabyatappa, Muraly