Identification and Characterization of a Versatile Retinoid Response Element (Retinoic Acid Receptor Response Element-Retinoid X Receptor Response Element) in the Mouse Tissue Transglutaminase Gene Promoter (∗)
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Tissue transglutaminase (transglutaminase type II) is an intracellular protein cross-linking enzyme that accumulates in connective tissue and in cells undergoing apoptosis. Retinoids regulate the transcription of the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene via activation of regulatory elements contained within 4 kilobases of the 5'-end of the gene. Co-transfection studies with retinoid receptor expression vectors in CV-1 cells demonstrated that the mouse tissue transglutaminase promoter is activated by ligand activation of either retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor (RAR.RXR) heterodimers or RXR homodimers. Optimal induction is achieved with retinoid receptor panagonists; partial activation can also be achieved with either RAR-specific or RXR-specific retinoids. Retinoid-dependent activation of the tissue transglutaminase promoter depends on both a proximal regulatory region containing sequences highly conserved between the human and the mouse tissue transglutaminase promoters and a distal region that includes a 30-base pair retinoid response element (mTGRRE1). mTGRRE1 contains three hexanucleotide half-sites (two canonical and one non-canonical) in a DR7/DR5 motif that bind both RAR*RXR heterodimers and RXR homodimers. These studies suggest that retinoid-dependent expression of the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene is mediated by a versatile tripartite retinoid response element located 1.7 kilobases upstream of the transcription start site.
author list (cited authors)
Nagy, L., Saydak, M., Shipley, N., Lu, S., Basilion, J. P., Yan, Z. H., ... Davies, P.