Identification and characterization of a versatile retinoid response element (retinoic acid receptor response element-retinoid X receptor response element) in the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene promoter.
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Tissue transglutaminase (transglutaminase type II) is an intracellular protein cross-linking enzyme that accumulates in connective tissue and in cells undergoing apoptosis. Retinoids regulate the transcription of the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene via activation of regulatory elements contained within 4 kilobases of the 5'-end of the gene. Co-transfection studies with retinoid receptor expression vectors in CV-1 cells demonstrated that the mouse tissue transglutaminase promoter is activated by ligand activation of either retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor (RAR.RXR) heterodimers or RXR homodimers. Optimal induction is achieved with retinoid receptor panagonists; partial activation can also be achieved with either RAR-specific or RXR-specific retinoids. Retinoid-dependent activation of the tissue transglutaminase promoter depends on both a proximal regulatory region containing sequences highly conserved between the human and the mouse tissue transglutaminase promoters and a distal region that includes a 30-base pair retinoid response element (mTGRRE1). mTGRRE1 contains three hexanucleotide half-sites (two canonical and one non-canonical) in a DR7/DR5 motif that bind both RAR*RXR heterodimers and RXR homodimers. These studies suggest that retinoid-dependent expression of the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene is mediated by a versatile tripartite retinoid response element located 1.7 kilobases upstream of the transcription start site.