Effects of Rexinoids on Glucose Transport and Insulin-mediated Signaling in Skeletal Muscles of Diabetic (db/db) Mice*
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Rexinoids and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are two classes of nuclear receptor ligands that induce insulin sensitization in diabetic rodents. TZDs are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activators, whereas rexinoids are selective ligands for the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Activation of both the insulin receptor substrates (IRSs)/Akt and the c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP)/c-Cbl pathways are important in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We have compared the effects of a rexinoid (LG268) and a TZD (rosiglitazone) on these two signal pathways in skeletal muscle of diabetic (db/db) mice. The results we have obtained show that treatment of db/db mice with either LG268 or rosiglitazone for 2 weeks results in a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle. Treatment with LG268 increases insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle without affecting the activity of the CAP/c-Cbl pathway. In contrast, rosiglitazone increases the levels of CAP expression and insulin-stimulated c-Cbl phosphorylation without affecting the IRS-1/Akt pathway. The effects of LG268 on the IRS-1/Akt pathway were associated with a decrease in the level of IRS-1 Ser(307) phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that rexinoids improve insulin sensitivity via changes in skeletal muscle metabolism that are distinct from those induced by TZDs. Rexinoids represent a novel class of insulin sensitizers with potential applications in the treatment of insulin resistance.
author list (cited authors)
Shen, Q. i., Cline, G. W., Shulman, G. I., Leibowitz, M. D., & Davies, P.