Identification of a transforming growth factor-beta1/bone morphogenetic protein 4 (TGF-beta1/BMP4) response element within the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene promoter. Academic Article uri icon


  • Tissue transglutaminase is a calcium-dependent, protein cross-linking enzyme that is highly expressed in cells undergoing apoptosis. The expression of tissue transglutaminase is regulated by a variety of molecules including retinoids, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Retinoid and interleukin-6 inductions of tissue transglutaminase expression are mediated by specific cis-regulatory elements located within the first 4.0 kilobase pairs of the promoter of the gene. The present studies were designed to identify the molecular mechanisms mediating the regulation of tissue transglutaminase gene expression by TGF-beta family members. Transient transfection of Mv1Lu cells with transglutaminase promoter constructs demonstrated that 0.2 nM TGF-beta1 maximally induced the activation of the promoter through a 10-base pair TGF-beta1 response element (TRE; GAGTTGGTGC) located 868 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. This same element mediated an inhibitory activity of TGF-beta1 on the transglutaminase promoter in MC3T3 E1 cells. The TRE through which TGF-beta1-regulated the activity of the transglutaminase promoter was necessary and sufficient for bone morphogenetic protein 2- (BMP) and BMP4-dependent inhibition of the tissue transglutaminase promoter. The TGF-beta1, BMP2, and BMP4 regulation of the transglutaminase promoter activity was similar to the responses we observed for the endogenous transglutaminase activity of Mv1Lu and MC3T3 E1 cells. For BMP2 and BMP4, this regulation was paralleled by a decrease in tissue transglutaminase mRNA in MC3T3 E1 cells. The results of these experiments suggest that TGF-beta1, BMP2, and BMP4 regulation of mouse tissue transglutaminase gene expression requires a composite TRE located in the 5'-flanking DNA.

published proceedings

  • J Biol Chem

author list (cited authors)

  • Ritter, S. J., & Davies, P. J.

citation count

  • 74

complete list of authors

  • Ritter, SJ||Davies, PJ

publication date

  • January 1998