Electrostatic interactions in the denatured state and in the transition state for protein folding: effects of denatured state interactions on the analysis of transition state structure. Academic Article uri icon


  • The development of electrostatic interactions during the folding of the N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 (NTL9) is investigated by pH-dependent rate equilibrium free energy relationships. We show that Asp8, among six acidic residues, is involved in non-native, electrostatic interactions with K12 in the transition state for folding as well as in the denatured state. The perturbed native state pK(a) of D8 (pK(a) = 3.0) appears to be maintained through non-native interactions in both the transition state and the denatured state. Mutational effects on the stability of the transition state for protein (un)folding are often analyzed in respect to change in ground states. Thus, the interpretation of transition state analysis critically depends on an understanding of mutational effects on both the native and denatured state. Increasing evidence for structurally biased denatured states under physiological conditions raises concerns about possible denatured state effects on folding studies. We show that the structural interpretation of transition state analysis can be altered dramatically by denatured state effects.

published proceedings

  • J Mol Biol

author list (cited authors)

  • Cho, J., & Raleigh, D. P.

citation count

  • 37

complete list of authors

  • Cho, Jae-Hyun||Raleigh, Daniel P

publication date

  • January 2006