Kinetic and chemical mechanisms of the fabG-encoded Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.
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Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (KACPR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (AcAc-ACP) to generate (3S)-beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP during the chain-elongation reaction of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. We report the evaluation of the kinetic and chemical mechanisms of KACPR using acetoacetyl-CoA (AcAc-CoA) as a substrate. Initial velocity, product inhibition, and deuterium kinetic isotope effect studies were consistent with a random bi-bi rapid-equilibrium kinetic mechanism of KACPR with formation of an enzyme-NADP(+)-AcAc-CoA dead-end complex. Plots of log V/K(NADPH) and log V/K(AcAc)(-)(CoA) indicated the presence of a single basic group (pK = 5.0-5.8) and a single acidic group (pK = 8.0-8.8) involved in catalysis, while the plot of log V vs pH indicated that at high pH an unprotonated form of the ternary enzyme complex was able to undergo catalysis. Significant and identical primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects were observed for V (2.6 +/- 0.4), V/K(NADPH) (2.6 +/- 0.1), and V/K(AcAc)(-)(CoA) (2.6 +/- 0.1) at pH 7.6, but all three values attenuated to values of near unity (1.1 +/- 0.03 or 0.91 +/- 0.02) at pH 10. Similarly, the large alpha-secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect of 1.15 +/- 0.02 observed for [4R-(2)H]NADPH on V/K(AcAc)(-)(CoA) at pH 7.6 was reduced to a value of unity (1.00 +/- 0.04) at high pH. The complete analysis of the pH profiles and the solvent, primary, secondary, and multiple deuterium isotope effects were most consistent with a chemical mechanism of KACPR that is stepwise, wherein the hydride-transfer step is followed by protonation of the enolate intermediate. Estimations of the intrinsic primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects ((D)k = 2.7, (alpha)(-D)k = 1.16) and the correspondingly negligible commitment factors suggest a nearly full expression of the intrinsic isotope effects on (D)V/K and (alpha)(-D)V/K, and are consistent with a late transition state for the hydride transfer step. Conversely, the estimated intrinsic solvent effect ((D)2(O)k) of 5.3 was poorly expressed in the experimentally derived parameters (D)2(O)V/K and (D)2(O)V (both = 1.2 +/- 0.1), in agreement with the estimation that the catalytic commitment factor for proton transfer to the enolate intermediate is large. Such detailed knowledge of the chemical mechanism of KAPCR may now help guide the rational design of, or inform screening assay-design strategies for, potent inhibitors of this and related enzymes of the short chain dehydrogenase enzyme class.
author list (cited authors)
Patel, M. P., Liu, W., West, J., Tew, D., Meek, T. D., & Thrall, S. H.
complete list of authors
Patel, Mehul P||Liu, Wu-Schyong||West, Joshua||Tew, David||Meek, Thomas D||Thrall, Sara H