Kinetic mechanism and rate-limiting steps of focal adhesion kinase-1.
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Steady-state kinetic analysis of focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK1) was performed using radiometric measurement of phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate (Ac-RRRRRRSETDDYAEIID-NH(2), FAK-tide) which corresponds to the sequence of an autophosphorylation site in FAK1. Initial velocity studies were consistent with a sequential kinetic mechanism, for which apparent kinetic values k(cat) (0.052 +/- 0.001 s(-1)), K(MgATP) (1.2 +/- 0.1 microM), K(iMgATP) (1.3 +/- 0.2 microM), K(FAK-tide) (5.6 +/- 0.4 microM), and K(iFAK-tide) (6.1 +/- 1.1 microM) were obtained. Product and dead-end inhibition data indicated that enzymatic phosphorylation of FAK-tide by FAK1 was best described by a random bi bi kinetic mechanism, for which both E-MgADP-FAK-tide and E-MgATP-P-FAK-tide dead-end complexes form. FAK1 catalyzed the betagamma-bridge:beta-nonbridge positional oxygen exchange of [gamma-(18)O(4)]ATP in the presence of 1 mM [gamma-(18)O(4)]ATP and 1.5 mM FAK-tide with a progressive time course which was commensurate with catalysis, resulting in a rate of exchange to catalysis of k(x)/k(cat) = 0.14 +/- 0.01. These results indicate that phosphoryl transfer is reversible and that a slow kinetic step follows formation of the E-MgADP-P-FAK-tide complex. Further kinetic studies performed in the presence of the microscopic viscosogen sucrose revealed that solvent viscosity had no effect on k(cat)/K(FAK-tide), while k(cat) and k(cat)/K(MgATP) were both decreased linearly at increasing solvent viscosity. Crystallographic characterization of inactive versus AMP-PNP-liganded structures of FAK1 showed that a large conformational motion of the activation loop upon ATP binding may be an essential step during catalysis and would explain the viscosity effect observed on k(cat)/K(m) for MgATP but not on k(cat)/K(m) for FAK-tide. From the positional isotope exchange, viscosity, and structural data it may be concluded that enzyme turnover (k(cat)) is rate-limited by both reversible phosphoryl group transfer (k(forward) approximately 0.2 s(-1) and k(reverse) approximately 0.04 s(-1)) and a slow step (k(conf) approximately 0.1 s(-1)) which is probably the opening of the activation loop after phosphoryl group transfer but preceding product release.
author list (cited authors)
Schneck, J. L., Briand, J., Chen, S., Lehr, R., McDevitt, P., Zhao, B., ... Thrall, S. H.
complete list of authors
Schneck, Jessica L||Briand, Jacques||Chen, Stephanie||Lehr, Ruth||McDevitt, Patrick||Zhao, Baoguang||Smallwood, Angela||Concha, Nestor||Oza, Khyati||Kirkpatrick, Robert||Yan, Kang||Villa, James P||Meek, Thomas D||Thrall, Sara H