Human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease. 1. Initial velocity studies and kinetic characterization of reaction intermediates by 18O isotope exchange.
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The peptidolytic reaction of HIV-1 protease has been investigated by using four oligopeptide substrates, Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, Ac-Arg-Ala-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, Ac-Ser-Gln-Ser-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, and Ac-Arg-Lys-Ile-Leu-Phe-Leu-Asp-Gly-NH2, that resemble two cleavage sites found within the naturally occurring polyprotein substrates Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol. The values for the kinetic parameters V/KEt and V/Et were 0.16-7.5 mM-1 s-1 and 0.24-29 s-1, respectively, at pH 6.0, 0.2 M NaCl, and 37 degrees C. By use of a variety of inorganic salts, it was concluded that the peptidolytic reaction is nonspecifically activated by increasing ionic strength. V/K increased in an apparently parabolic fashion with increasing ionic strength, while V was either increased or decreased slightly. From product inhibition studies, the kinetic mechanism of the protease is either random or ordered uni-bi, depending on the substrate studied. The reverse reaction or a partial reverse reaction (as measured by isotope exchange of the carboxylic product into substrate) was negligible for most of the oligopeptide substrates, but the enzyme catalyzed the formation of Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Phe-Leu-Asp-Gly-NH2 from the products Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr and Phe-Leu-Asp-Gly-NH2. The protease-catalyzed exchange of an atom of 18O from H2 18O into the re-formed substrates occurred at a rate which was 0.01-0.12 times that of the forward peptidolytic reaction. The results of these studies are in accord with the formation of a kinetically competent enzyme-bound amide hydrate intermediate, the collapse of which is the rate-limiting chemical step in the reaction pathway.
author list (cited authors)
Hyland, L. J., Tomaszek, T. A., Roberts, G. D., Carr, S. A., Magaard, V. W., Bryan, H. L., ... Culp, J. S.