Stable fluorescent complexes of double-stranded DNA with bis-intercalating asymmetric cyanine dyes: properties and applications
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The synthesis, proof of structure, and the absorption and fluorescence properties of two new unsymmetrical cyanine dyes, thiazole orange dimer (TOTO; 1,1'-(4,4,7,7-tetramethyl-4,7- diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiaz ole)-2- methylidene]-quinolinium tetraiodide) and oxazole yellow dimer (YOYO; an analogue of TOTO with a benzo-1,3-oxazole in place of the benzo-1,3-thiazole) are reported. TOTO and YOYO are virtually non-fluorescent in solution, but form highly fluorescent complexes with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), up to a maximum dye to DNA bp ratio of 1:4, with greater than 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement. The dsDNA-TOTO (lambda max 513 nm; lambda maxF 532 nm) and dsDNA-YOYO (lambda max 489 nm; lambda maxF 509 nm) complexes are completely stable to electrophoresis on agarose and acrylamide gels. Mixtures of restriction fragments pre-labeled with ethidium dimer (EthD; lambda maxF 616 nm) and those pre-labeled with either TOTO or YOYO were separated by electrophoresis. Laser excitation at 488 nm and simultaneous confocal fluorescence detection at 620-750 nm (dsDNA-EthD emission) and 500-565 nm (dsDNA-TOTO or dsDNA-YOYO emission) allowed sensitive detection, quantitation, and accurate sizing of restriction fragments ranging from 600 to 24,000 bp. The limit of detection of dsDNA-TOTO and YOYO complexes with a laser-excited confocal fluorescence gel scanner for a band 5-mm wide on a 1-mm thick agarose gel was 4 picograms, about 500-fold lower than attainable by conventional staining with ethidium bromide.
author list (cited authors)
Rye, H. S., Yue, S., Wemmer, D. E., Quesada, M. A., Haugland, R. P., Mathies, R. A., & Glazer, A. N.
complete list of authors
Rye, HS||Yue, S||Wemmer, DE||Quesada, MA||Haugland, RP||Mathies, RA||Glazer, AN