Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) in sooting hydrocarbon flames using femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) Academic Article uri icon


  • 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Ultrashort-pulse, femtosecond (fs)-duration, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) are reported in rich, sooting hydrocarbon flames. CO-TPLIF detection using conventional nanosecond or picosecond lasers are often plagued by photochemical interferences, specifically under fuel-rich flames conditions. In the current study, we investigate the commonly used CO two-photon excitation scheme of the B1+X1+ electronic transition, using approximately 100-fs-duration excitation pulses. Fluorescence emission was observed in the ngstrm band originating from directly populated B1+ upper state, as well as, in the third positive band from collisionally populated b3+ upper state. The current work was focused on the ngstrm band emission. Interference from nascent C2 emissions originating from hot soot particles in the flame could be reduced to a negligible level using a narrower detection gate width. In contrast, avoiding interferences from laser-generated C2 Swan-band emissions required specific narrowband spectral filtering in sooting flame conditions. The observed less than quadratic laser pulse energy dependence of the TPLIF signal suggests the presence of strong three-photon ionization and stimulated emission processes. In a range of CH4/air and C2H4/air premixed flames investigated, the measured CO fluorescence signals agree well with the calculated equilibrium CO number densities. Reduced-interference CO-TPLIF imaging in premixed C2H4/O2/N2 jet flames is also reported.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Wang, Y., & Kulatilaka, W. D.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Wang, Yejun||Kulatilaka, Waruna D

publication date

  • December 2018