The British Academy Brian Barry Prize Essay An Exit, Voice and Loyalty Model of Politics Academic Article uri icon


  • Political scientists typically develop different models to examine distinct political phenomena such as lobbying, protests, elections and conflict. These specific models can provide important insights into a particular event, process or outcome of interest. This article takes a different tack. Rather than focus on the specificities of a given political phenomenon, this study constructs a model that captures the key elements common to most political situations. This model represents a reformulation and extension of Albert Hirschmans famousExit, Voice and Loyaltyframework. To highlight the value that comes from focusing on the commonalities that exist across apparently disparate political phenomena, the article applies the model to several issues in the democratization literature related to modernization theory, the political resource curse, inequality, foreign aid and economic performance.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 18.4

author list (cited authors)

  • Clark, W. R., Golder, M., & Golder, S. N.

citation count

  • 27

complete list of authors

  • Clark, William Roberts||Golder, Matt||Golder, Sona N

publication date

  • October 2017