Microwave-Enhanced Photolysis of Norfloxacin: Kinetics, Matrix Effects, and Degradation Pathways.
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Degradation of norfloxacin (NOR) was studied using a combination of microwave and UV irradiation methods (MW/UV process). Remarkable synergistic effect was found between MW and UV light. The removal rate with the MW/UV process was much faster than that with UV light irradiation only. Degradation of NOR followed second-order kinetics and ~72% of NOR could be removed in the first 5 min of MW/UV reaction. Influence of inorganic ions (cations (K, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) and anions (Cl-, SO2-, NO-, CO2-)), humic acid (HA) and surfactants (cation, anion, and non-ionic) on the degradation of NOR by the MW/UV process was investigated. Among the ions, Cu2+ and NO- ions inhibited the degradation of NOR. The presence of HA and surfactants in water showed a slight inhibition on the NOR removal. Furthermore, the NOR degradation in the MW/UV process was primarily caused by the OH-photosensitization steps. Seven intermediates formed by the oxidation of NOR were identified and three reaction pathways were proposed. Removals of NOR in tap water (TW), synthetic wastewater (WW), river water (RW), and seawater (SW) were also studied, which demonstrated that the MW/UV process was an effective oxidation technology for degrading fluoroquinolone antibiotics in different water matrices.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
author list (cited authors)
Liao, W., Sharma, V. K., Xu, S. u., Li, Q., & Wang, L.
complete list of authors
Liao, Wenchao||Sharma, Virender K||Xu, Su||Li, Qingsong||Wang, Lei