Congestion at Recreation Areas: Empirical Evidence on Perceptions, Mitigating Behaviour and Management Preferences Academic Article uri icon


  • Economists have tried to estimate the demand for recreation under conditions of congestion, struggling especially with a model that uses observed rather than stated behaviour to obtain results. This paper reports statistical analyses of data on perceptions, mitigating behaviour and management preferences in order to highlight the difficulties related to empirical analysis of congestion. We offer evidence that may be of assistance to those wishing to construct measures of congestion for use in an observed behaviour model. The results may also be useful to recreation area managers who can implement a quota or permit system or change site entry or access fees to control access to the site they manage.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Environmental Management

author list (cited authors)

  • Jakus, P., & Shaw, W. D.

citation count

  • 32

complete list of authors

  • Jakus, Paul||Shaw, W Douglass

publication date

  • August 1997