Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. I. Observations, Sample Characterization, and Spectral Line Evolution
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© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present 888 visual-wavelength spectra of 122 nearby type II supernovae (SNe II) obtained between 1986 and 2009, and ranging between 3 and 363 days post-explosion. In this first paper, we outline our observations and data reduction techniques, together with a characterization based on the spectral diversity of SNe II. A statistical analysis of the spectral matching technique is discussed as an alternative to nondetection constraints for estimating SN explosion epochs. The time evolution of spectral lines is presented and analyzed in terms of how this differs for SNe of different photometric, spectral, and environmental properties: velocities, pseudo-equivalent widths, decline rates, magnitudes, time durations, and environment metallicity. Our sample displays a large range in ejecta expansion velocities, from ∼9600 to ∼1500 km s-1 at 50 days post-explosion with a median Hα value of 7300 km s-1. This is most likely explained through differing explosion energies. Significant diversity is also observed in the absolute strength of spectral lines, characterized through their pseudo-equivalent widths. This implies significant diversity in both temperature evolution (linked to progenitor radius) and progenitor metallicity between different SNe II. Around 60% of our sample shows an extra absorption component on the blue side of the Hα P-Cygni profile ("Cachito" feature) between 7 and 120 days since explosion. Studying the nature of Cachito, we conclude that these features at early times (before ∼35 days) are associated with Si ii λ6355, while past the middle of the plateau phase they are related to high velocity (HV) features of hydrogen lines.
author list (cited authors)
Gutiérrez, C. P., Anderson, J. P., Hamuy, M., Morrell, N., González-Gaitan, S., Stritzinger, M. D., ... Turatto, M.
complete list of authors
Gutiérrez, Claudia P||Anderson, Joseph P||Hamuy, Mario||Morrell, Nidia||González-Gaitan, Santiago||Stritzinger, Maximilian D||Phillips, Mark M||Galbany, Lluis||Folatelli, Gastón||Dessart, Luc||Contreras, Carlos||Valle, Massimo Della||Freedman, Wendy L||Hsiao, Eric Y||Krisciunas, Kevin||Madore, Barry F||Maza, José||Suntzeff, Nicholas B||Prieto, Jose Luis||González, Luis||Cappellaro, Enrico||Navarrete, Mauricio||Pizzella, Alessandro||Ruiz, Maria T||Smith, R Chris||Turatto, Massimo