This paper summarizes a component of a multimodal transportation study conducted for the El Paso Metropolitan Planning Organization of Texas, which included a regional population survey. The El Paso Regional Multimodal Transportation Survey was implemented between September and October 2015, and the study area included all of El Paso County, Texas, and parts of Doña Ana and Otero Counties, New Mexico. The survey specifically examined the behaviors or motivations to use or not to use various modes of transportation, with a particular focus on alternative modes (i.e., walking, bicycling, and using public transportation). As one of the first known regional transportation surveys in the United States, this survey contributed to the emerging area of health and transportation through the integration of several elements of health and well-being. The results indicate that an understanding of regional and population characteristics, as well as behavioral barriers and motivators, is an important first step in the design of effective alternative travel programs and interventions. Several factors, including neighborhood environment variables, personal and social characteristics, and attitudes and habits toward health and transportation, worked together to influence residents’ participation in alternative transportation. Although the personal automobile is the dominant travel mode in El Paso, residents saw great value in the extension of public transportation infrastructure in the future. Improvements of connectivity, safety, and the neighborhood environment were found to be particularly essential to encourage walking and bicycling in the region.