Retention of Carotenoids in Biofortified Maize Flour and -Cryptoxanthin-Enhanced Eggs after Household Cooking. Academic Article uri icon


  • Biofortification of crops to enhance provitamin A carotenoids is a strategy to increase the intake where vitamin A deficiency presents a widespread problem. Heat, light, and oxygen cause isomerization and oxidation of carotenoids, reducing provitamin A activity. Understanding provitamin A retention is important for assessing efficacy of biofortified foods. Retention of carotenoids in high-xanthophyll and high--carotene maize was assessed after a long-term storage at three temperatures. Carotenoid retention in high--cryptoxanthin maize was determined in muffins, non-nixtamalized tortillas, porridge, and fried puffs made from whole-grain and sifted flour. Retention in eggs from hens fed high--cryptoxanthin maize was assessed after frying, scrambling, boiling, and microwaving. Loss during storage in maize was accelerated with increasing temperature and affected by genotype. Boiling whole-grain maize into porridge resulted in the highest retention of all cooking and sifting methods (112%). Deep-fried maize and scrambled eggs had the lowest carotenoid retention rates of 67-78 and 84-86%, respectively.

published proceedings

  • ACS Omega

author list (cited authors)

  • Sowa, M., Yu, J., Palacios-Rojas, N., Goltz, S. R., Howe, J. A., Davis, C. R., Rocheford, T., & Tanumihardjo, S. A.

publication date

  • January 1, 2017 11:11 AM