Strong Ion Difference Approach to Acid-base Imbalances with Clinical Applications to Dogs and Cats Academic Article uri icon


  • Stewart's strong ion difference, first introduced more than 10 years ago, offers an innovative approach for the analysis of non-respiratory acid-base disorders. This article addresses the concept of strong ion difference and discusses its clinical applications. A brief review of base excess and anion gap is also included. Clinical cases are provided to demonstrate a step-by-step method using strong ion difference to evaluate nonrespiratory acid-base imbalances.

author list (cited authors)

  • Russell, K. E., Hansen, B. D., & Stevens, J. B.

citation count

  • 25

publication date

  • September 1996