Transparency Should Trump Trust: Rejoinder to McConnell and Leibold (2009) and Ziegert and Hanges (2009) Academic Article uri icon


  • The rebuttals offered by the authors whose data we reanalyzed (A. R. McConnell & J. M. Leibold, 2001; J. C. Ziegert & P. J. Hanges, 2005) address secondary issues that do not alter our primary message: The evidence for the predictive validity of the race Implicit Association Test is too fragile to support the strong claims that have been made about the pervasiveness of prejudice and the linkages between Implicit Association Test scores and discriminatory behavior. Greater caution in both the legal and scientific communities is warranted. Most importantly, scientific research on implicit bias needs greater transparency and willingness to open raw data to critical scrutiny, not greater trust and deference among researchers. 2009 American Psychological Association.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Applied Psychology

author list (cited authors)

  • Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., Klick, J., Mellers, B., Mitchell, G., & Tetlock, P. E.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Blanton, Hart||Jaccard, James||Klick, Jonathan||Mellers, Barbara||Mitchell, Gregory||Tetlock, Philip E

publication date

  • January 2009